Recently, at the 15th Conference of Parties (COP15) to the Convention on Biological Diversity, Small Island Developing States have agreed to form Coalition for Nature.

 

About the ‘Coalition for Nature’

  • The Coalition for Nature is formed for the implementation and adoption of the Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF).
  • The goal of the coalition is to advocate for agreed common SIDS priorities and needs such as greater means of implementing biodiversity objectives in these places by putting up a unified front.

 

About the Global biodiversity framework (GBF)

  • GBF is a new draft released by the Secretariat of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) to guide actions worldwide through 2030, to minimise biodiversity loss and preserve nature.
  • Its proposed aims include reducing pesticide use by at least two-thirds and eliminating the most detrimental subsidies, including fisheries and agricultural subsidies.
  • One of the key targets of the GBF – the 30×30 target – is to protect at least 30% of the planet (especially areas of particular importance – land and sea – for biodiversity) by 2030.
  • Once approved unanimously by all 195 countries under the CBD, the GBF will be signed as a global deal to take specific measures under 23 proposed targets by 2030.
    • The targets which are not accepted by one or more countries will not be part of the Framework.

 

India’s position on the GBF

  • Overall —
      • The GBF must be framed in the light of science and equity, and the sovereign right of nations over their resources, as provided for in the CBD.
      • If climate is profoundly linked to biodiversity, then the principle of equity and common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities (CBDR-RC) must equally apply to biodiversity.
      • Biodiversity must be promoted through positive investment.
  • On subsidies, pesticide use and invasive alien species —
      • That the essential support to vulnerable sections cannot be called subsidies and targeted for elimination, but may be rationalised.
      • India’s position on pesticide use, stating that a numerical global target for pesticide reduction is unnecessary and should be left up to individual countries to decide.
      • India’s position on the proposed numerical target (not feasible without the necessary baseline and relevant scientific evidence) of dealing with the impacts of invasive alien species on native biodiversity.

 

Small Island Developing States (SIDS) –

  • SIDS are a distinct group of 38 UN Member States and 20 Non-UN Members/Associate Members of United Nations regional commissions that face unique social, economic and environmental vulnerabilities.
  • The three geographical regions in which SIDS are located are: the Caribbean, the Pacific, and the Atlantic, Indian Ocean and South China Sea (AIS).
  • SIDS were recognised as a special case both for their environment and development at the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.