In August 2022, India formally updated its nationally determined contribution (NDC) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) which was made on October 2, 2015. The updated NDC is a step towards India’s goal to reach net-zero emissions by 2070.


What is the Paris Agreement?

  • The 2015 Paris Agreement is a legally binding international climate treaty, approved by world leaders attending the Climate Conference, COP21.
  • It was adopted by 196 countries on December 12, 2015, and entered into force on November 4, 2016.
  • The Paris Agreement’s main goal is to limit global warming by keeping average global temperatures “well below two, preferably to 1.5 degrees Celsius”, in comparison with pre-industrial levels.


What is a nationally determined contribution?

  • Plans submitted by countries to work towards their climate goals are known as nationally determined contributions (NDCs).
  • Each signatory of the Paris Agreement is required to prepare, communicate, and maintain the NDCs it intends to achieve as part of its climate action plan. This is outlined in Article 4, paragraph 2 of the Paris Agreement.
  • NDCs are submitted every five years to the UNFCCC secretariat.
  • In October 2021, former Niti Aayog CEO Amitabh Kant said that India is the only G20 country that is on track to achieve its climate goals under the Paris Agreement.


What is the document all about?

  • Emissions intensity
      • Emissions intensity is the total amount of emissions emitted for every unit of GDP. 
      • The updated contributions include reducing the emissions intensity of the GDP by 45% by 2030, compared to the 2005 level. According to India’s 2015 NDC, the country had announced that it will work towards improving the emissions intensity of its GDP by 33-35% below the 2005 level, by 2030.
      • In December 2020, the government claimed that India had already achieved 21% of its emissions intensity as a proportion of its GDP in line with its commitment.
  • Non fossil fuel-based energy
      • By 2030, India also plans to achieve about 50% of cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel-based energy resources.
      • To accomplish this, India will use low-cost international finance, including the Green Climate Fund (GCF). 
  • Sustainable living
      • India has propagated sustainable living based on traditions, conservation, and moderation to combat climate change. This also includes a mass movement for “LIFE” – lifestyle for environment.
      • According to Niti Aayog, LIFE is a public movement to encourage people to become pro-planet. 
  • Other highlights — It includes adopting a climate-friendly and cleaner path for economic development, creating an additional carbon sink, adapting to climate change by enhancing investments in development programmes in vulnerable sectors, mobilising funds from developed countries to implement better mitigation and adaptation actions, and building an architectural framework and other capacities for quick diffusion and better research and development for climate technologies.



In 2019, India ranked among the top 10 countries in the climate change performance index for the first time. It ranked tenth on the 2022 index as well. Its performance was rated high in the greenhouse gas emissions, energy use, and climate policy categories, and medium in the renewable energy category.


SourceThe Hindu


QUESTION – What are the ‘intended nationally determined contributions’ as per the Paris Agreement? Also highlight the new INDCs submitted by India to the UNFCCC.