Recently, the International Labour Organisation (ILO) has released the Global Employment Trends for Youth 2022 report.
Key highlights of the report –
Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic –
The report finds that the pandemic has exacerbated the numerous labour market challenges facing those aged between 15 and 24 years, who have experienced a much higher percentage loss in employment than adults since early 2020.
The total global number of unemployed youths is estimated to reach 73 million in 2022, a slight improvement from 2021 (75 million) but still six million above the pre-pandemic level of 2019.
Gender Gap –
Young women are worse off than young men, exhibiting a much lower employment-to-population ratio (EPR).
In 2022, 27.4 per cent of young women globally are projected to be in employment, compared to 40.3 per cent of young men.
This means that young men are almost 1.5 times more likely than young women to be employed.
Regional Differences –
The recovery in youth unemployment is projected to diverge between low- and middle-income countries on the one hand and high-income countries on the other.
High income countries are the only ones expected to achieve youth unemployment ratesclose to those of 2019 by the end of 2022.
Meanwhile, in the other country income groups, the rates are projected to remain more than 1 percentage point above their pre-crisis values.
Green and Blue Future –
On the positive side, the report said young people were well-placed to benefit from the expansion of the so-called green and blue economies, centred around the environment and sustainable ocean resources respectively.
The study said an additional 8.4 million jobs could be created for young people by 2030 through green and blue investments, notably in clean and renewable energies, sustainable agriculture, recycling and waste management.
Broadband Coverage & Healthcare Sector –
The report estimates that achieving universal broadband coverage by 2030 could lead to a net increase in employment of 24 million new jobs worldwide, of which 6.4 million would be taken by young people.
The report also estimates that investments in care sectors would create 17.9 million more jobs for young people by 2030.
Key findings with respect to India –
In India, the report said that the youth employment participation rate declined by 0.9 percentage points over the first nine months of 2021 relative to its value in 2020.
The situation is particularly severe for very young people aged 15-20 years.
In India, the report added that school closures lasted 18 months and among the 24 crore school-going children, only 8% of such children in rural areas and 23% in urban areas had adequate access to online education.
It added that India has a very low youth female labour market participation and Indian young women experienced larger relative employment losses than young men in 2021 and 2022.
It added that domestic work is a highly informal sector in India, and wages are extremely low and young women and girls are vulnerable to abuse.
About the ‘International Labour Organisation’ –
The ILO, headquartered at Geneva, Switzerland, is a specialised agency of the United Nations (UN).
It was established in 1919, as part of the Treaty of Versailles.
It is responsible for setting labour standards, develop policies and devise programmes promoting decent work for all women and men.
It is the only tripartite agency which brings together governments, employers and workers of 187 member States.
Parent organisation: Economic and Social Council of the United Nations
The ILO has four strategic objectives —
Promote and realise standards and fundamental principles and rights at work
Create greater opportunities for women and men to decent employment and income
Enhance the coverage and effectiveness of social protection for all, and
Strengthen tripartism and social dialogue
It is also a member of the United Nations Development Group (UNDP), a coalition of UN organisation aimed at helping meet the Sustainable Development Goals.
Members – The ILO has 187 member states (186 Countries + The Cook Islands)
It publishes the ‘World Employment and Social Outlook’ and ‘Global Wage Report’.