The “world of work” is being buffeted by multiple crises, says the ninth edition of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) Monitor.
Key highlights of the report –
- After significant gains during the last quarter of 2021, the number of hours worked globally dropped in the first quarter of 2022, to 3.8 per cent below the pre-crisis benchmark (fourth quarter of 2019). This is equivalent to a deficit of 112 million full-time jobs.
- Multiple new and interconnected global crises, including inflation (especially in energy and food prices), financial turbulence, potential debt distress, and global supply chain disruption – exacerbated by war in Ukraine – means there is a growing risk of a further deterioration in hours worked in 2022.
- The gender gap in hours worked also grew during the pandemic.
- The report spells out a series of measures as a way forward, which are in line with ILO’s Global Call to Action for a human-centred recovery, and the ILO-led UN initiative, the Global Accelerator for Jobs and Social Protection.
About the ‘International Labour Organisation’ –
- The ILO, headquartered at Geneva, Switzerland, is a specialised agency of the United Nations (UN).
- It was established in 1919, as part of the Treaty of Versailles.
- It is responsible for setting labour standards, develop policies and devise programmes promoting decent work for all women and men.
- It is the only tripartite agency which brings together governments, employers and workers of 187 member States.
- Parent organisation: Economic and Social Council of the United Nations
- The ILO has four strategic objectives –
- Promote and realise standards and fundamental principles and rights at work
- Create greater opportunities for women and men to decent employment and income
- Enhance the coverage and effectiveness of social protection for all, and
- Strengthen tripartism and social dialogue
- It is also a member of the United Nations Development Group (UNDP), a coalition of UN organisation aimed at helping meet the Sustainable Development Goals.
- Members – The ILO has 187 member states (186 Countries + The Cook Islands)
- It publishes the ‘World Employment and Social Outlook’ and ‘Global Wage Report’.
India and the ILO –
- Recently, in June 2021, India completed its term as chair of the Governing Body of the ILO.
- Governing Body is the apex executive body of the ILO which decides policies, programmes, budget and elects the Director-General.
- India had assumed the chairmanship after a gap of 35 years. It held the position for the period October 2020- June 2021.
- India has not ratified the two conventions (out of 8). These are —
- Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention, 1948, and
- Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention, 1949 (No. 98).
- Reasons for not ratifying —
- The statutory rules in India, for the government employees, prohibits certain rights such as right to strike, to openly criticise government policies etc.
- After ratification, India would be forced to grant these rights to the civil servants. Hence, India has not ratified these two conventions.