State of the Global Climate report 2022 has been released by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).

 

What is it?

  • The estimate for 2022 is part of the provisional State of Global Climate Report that the WMO publishes every year.The final report for this year is due only in April next year.
  • The provisional report is meant to update climate negotiators on the latest trends and nudge them towards more urgent action.
  • As per the report, the global mean temperatures for 2022 are currently estimated to be about 1.15 degree Celsius higher than pre-industrial times.

 

Key highlights of the report

  • Global mean temperature in 2022 —
    • The global mean temperature in 2022 is currently estimated to be about 1.15 (1.02 to 1.28) degrees celsius above the pre-industrial level (1850-1900 average).
    • This makes it difficult to meet the goal of keeping warming within 1. 5 degrees celsius goal by the end of the century.
  • Eight warmest years on record —
    • Fuelled by ever-rising greenhouse gas concentrations and accumulated heat, the past eight years (2015-22) are on track to be the eight warmest on record.
    • The report says that the year 2022 will possibly be the fifth or sixth warmest year.
      • The warmest year on record so far has been 2016, when the global mean temperatures were measured to be about 1.28 degree Celsius higher than pre-industrial times.
  • Vulnerable population most affected —
    • The report flagged how global warming made every heatwave more intense and life-threatening especially for vulnerable populations.
    • An upsurge in climate change impacts can be seen as sea level rise accelerates, European glacier melt shatters records and extreme weather causes devastation.
  • Impact of climate change —
    • The rate of sea level rise has doubled since 1993. It has risen by 10mm since January 2020 to a new record high this year.
      • The past two and a half years alone account for 10% of the overall rise in sea level.
    • The impact of rise in temperature can also be seen in —
      • record breaking rain in July and August that led to flooding in Pakistan;
      • large parts of Europe sweltered in repeated episodes of extreme heat;
      • UK saw a new national record in July, when the temperature topped more than 40 degrees celsius for the first time.

 

About the ‘World Meteorological Organisation’

  • It is an intergovernmental organisation with a membership of 193 Member States and Territories.
  • It was established by the ratification of the WMO Convention in 1950.
  • WMO became the specialised agency of the United Nations for meteorology (weather and climate), operational hydrology and related geophysical sciences a year later.
    • The UN Economic and Social Council is the parent organisation of WMO.
  • WMO is headquartered at Geneva.
  • Functions –
      • WMO is dedicated to international cooperation and coordination on —
        • the state and behaviour of the Earths atmosphere, its interaction with the land and oceans,
        • the weather and climate it produces, and
        • the resulting distribution of water resources.
      • It facilitates and promotes —
        • the establishment of an integrated Earth System observation network to provide weather, climate and water-related data
        • the creation of standards for observation and monitoring
        • the provision of weather, climate and water-related services – to reduce disaster risks and contribute to climate change adaptation etc.
        • the coordination of research and training in meteorology and related fields
  • Reports – Major reports published by the WMO are – Status of World Climate; Greenhouse Gas Bulletin.
  • Besides the above reports, it also provides information on long term climate change indicators such as rise in sea levels, the extent of sea ice and concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere etc.