According to a recent study published in the Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, the emergence of multi-drug resistant Salmonella tphimurium DT104 that causes infections in humans and cattle.

 

Details

  • The rapid and unselective use of traditional antibiotics gives rise to the emergence of drug resistant phenotype in typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars.
  • It has increased the difficulties in curing Salmonella-induced food-borne illnesses (majorly typhoid or paratyphoid fever, gastroenteritis, and diarrhoea) worldwide.
  • Salmonella typhimurium ST313 is an invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella serovar, causes bloodstream infection in the malnourished and immunocompromised population of sub-Saharan Africa.
  • The MDR phenotype in this pathogen was provided by Salmonella Genomic Island-1 (SGI-1), which confers protection against a wide range of antibiotics, including ampicillin (pse-1), chloramphenicol/florfenicol (floR), streptomycin/spectinomycin (aadA2), sulphonamides (sul1), and tetracycline (tetG) (ACSSuT).
  • Further emergence of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) S. Typhimurium ST313 (having multi-drug resistant (MDR) and resistance against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase and azithromycin) in Africa posed a significant threat to global health.
  • Recent studies reported an annual incidence of as many as 360 cases of typhoid fever per 1,00,000 people, with an annual estimate of 4.5 million cases and 8,930 deaths (0.2% fatality rate) in India.
  • The continuous adaptation of this bacteria to the available antibiotics creates a risk of developing antimicrobial resistance in the future.
  • The recent study showed that outer membrane porins of Salmonella Typhimurium play an essential role in the survival of the bacteria in the presence of antibiotics.

 

About the ‘Salmonella infection’

  • It is a disease caused by the bacteria Salmonella.
  • Salmonella Typhimurium and salmonella typhi are two types of salmonella bacteria.
  • It is usually characterised by acute onset of fever, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea and sometimes vomiting.
  • Salmonella is 1 of 4 key global causes of diarrhoeal diseases.