The University Grants Commission (UGC) has asked all Universities and Colleges to observe August 14 as Partition Horrors Remembrance Day.



They have been asked to organise programmes and seminars to commemorate the sufferings and sacrifices of millions of Indians during the partition in 1947.


About the two-nation theory

  • This theory held that there were two nations – one belonging to the Hindus and one two the Muslims – living in the territory of India. Sir Syed Ahmad khan was the first exponent of the Two-Nation Theory in the modern era.
  • He believed that India was a continent and not a country, and that among the vast population of different races and different creeds, Hindus and Muslims were the two major components.
  • Events such as the Urdu-Hindi controversy (1867), the partition of Bengal (1905), and the Hindu revivalism set the Hindus and the Muslims further apart.
  • However, the annulment of the partition of Bengal in 1911 by the British Government brought the Congress and the Muslim League on one platform.
  • Starting with the constitutional cooperation in the Lucknow Pact (1916), they launched the Non-cooperation and Khilfat movements to press upon the British government the demand for constitutional reforms in India in the pos-World War I era.


What led to the partition of India?

  • The British ‘Divide and Rule Policy’ to promote rivalry and discord among various groups.
  • The Bengal Partition of 1905 dividing the province into Hindu and Muslim majority areas.
  • The formation of Muslim League, initially to prevent Muslims from joining Congress.
  • Separate electorate for the Muslims through Lucknow Pact (1916).
  • Socio-religious movements such as Tabligh, Tanzim, Shuddhi, Sangathan all aimed at attacking the religious sentiments of both Hindus and Muslims.
  • 1937 elections – Unwillingness shown by Congress to accept the league as coalition partners drove away the League for good.
  • Declaration of Jinnah at the Lahore Session of the League in 1940 that Hindus and Muslims can never have a common nationality.
  • Pro-League attitude of the British in the August Offer 1940.
  • Failure of Cripps Mission and its acceptance of autonomy of Muslim majority province.
  • Failure of Shimla Conference indirectly sub-served the League’s demands.
  • The Cabinet Mission was the final nail in the coffin. This was followed by Jinnahs brutal Direct Action Day culminating with the Mountbatten Plan 1947.