The recent spell of heavy rains and floods that ravaged large parts of Pakistan’s Sindh province has also taken a heavy toll on the archaeological site of Mohenjodaro.
In fact, the calamity has pushed the archeological site – situated on the bank of the Indus river – to the “brink of extinction”.
About ‘Mohenjodaro’ –
- Mohenjo-daro, a group of mounds and ruins, is a 5000-year-old archaeological site located about 80-km off the city of Sukkur. It comprises the remnants of one of two main centres of the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation, the other one being Harappa.
- Mohenjo-daro, which means ‘mound of the dead’, was one of the oldest cities of the world.
- Known to be a model planned city of the ancient civilisation, the houses here had bathrooms, toilets and drainage system. Though in ruins, the walls and brick pavements in the streets are still in a preserved condition.
- The ruins of the city remained undocumented for around 3,700 years, until 1920, when archaeologist RD Banerji visited the site. Its excavation started in 1921 and continued in phases till 1964-65. The site went to Pakistan during Partition.
Other Indus Valley sites –
- The Indus Valley Civilisation spanned much of what is now Pakistan and the northern states of India (Gujarat, Haryana and Rajasthan), even extending towards the Iranian border.
- Its major urban centres included Harappa and Mohenjo-daro in Pakistan, and Lothal, Kalibangan, Dholavira and Rakhigarhi in India.
About Indus Valley Civilisation –
- The Indus Valley Civilisation was established around 3300 BC. It flourished between 2600 BC and 1900 BC (Mature Indus Valley Civilisation). It started declining around 1900 BC and disappeared around 1400 BC.
- This is also called Harappan Civilisation after the first city to be excavated, Harappa (Punjab, Pakistan).
- Pre-Harappan civilisation has been found at Mehrgarh, Pakistan which shows the first evidence of cotton cultivation.
- Geographically, this civilisation covered Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Western Uttar Pradesh. It extended from Sutkagengor (in Baluchistan) in the West to Alamgirpur (Western UP) in the East; and from Mandu (Jammu) in the North to Daimabad (Ahmednagar, Maharashtra) in the South. Some Indus Valley sites have also been found in as far away as Afghanistan and Turkmenistan.