Recently, India announced its long-term strategy to transition to a “low emissions” pathway at the United Nations Conference of Parties (COP) ongoing in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt.

 

About the ‘Long Term-Low Emissions Development Strategy’ of India

  • At the ongoing COP27, India announced its long-term strategy to transition to a “low emissions” pathway i.e. LT-LEDS.
  • The LT-LEDS is a commitment document which every signatory to the Paris Agreement (2015) is obliged to make by 2022. So far, only 57 countries (including India) have submitted their document.
  • India’s strategy is mainly based on expanding Indias nuclear power capacity by at least three-fold in the next decade, apart from becoming an international hub for producing green hydrogen and increasing the proportion of ethanol in petrol.
  • This strategy is in line with India’s goal of being carbon neutral by 2070 — a commitment made by Prime Minister Narendra Modi at Glasgow, UK where the 26th COP was held last year.
  • India’s LT-LEDS includes —
      • Mode of Transportation —
        • India “aspires” to maximise the use of electric vehicles, with ethanol blending to reach 20% by 2025 (it is currently 10%).
        • India also aims for a “strong shiftto public transport for passenger and freight traffic.
      • Carbon Sequestration —
        • India will also focus on improving energy efficiency by the Perform, Achieve and Trade (PAT) scheme, the National Hydrogen Mission, increasing electrification, enhancing material efficiency, and recycling and ways to reduce emissions.
        • India’s forest and tree cover are a net carbon sink absorbing 15% of CO2 emissions in 2016.
        • The country is on track to fulfilling its Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) commitment of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of additional carbon sequestration in forest and tree cover by 2030.
      • On Climate Finance —
        • The document underlined that this transition entailed costs ranging in trillion dollars” that the developed countries, responsible for the existing carbon accumulation, ought to be making good.
        • The document says that provision of climate finance by developed countries will play a very significant role and needs to be considerably enhanced, in the form of grants and concessional loans.