Director-General of Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) has said that Bihar is free of left-wing extremism now.


What is ‘Left Wing Extremism’?

  • Left-wing extremism is the single internal security threat that affects the largest number of States in India.
  • LWE aims to overthrow the existing democratic state structure with violence as their primary weapon, and mass mobilisation and strategic united fronts as complementary components.
  • They plan to usher in So-called ‘New Democratic Revolution’ in India.
  • Left-wing extremists are popularly known as Maoists worldwide and as Naxalites in India.


Causes for spread of LWE

  • Land Related Factors —
      • Encroachment of Government and Community lands (even the water-bodies) by powerful sections of society.
      • Lack of title to public land cultivated by the landless poor.
      • Poor implementation of laws prohibiting the transfer of tribal land to non-tribals in the Fifth Schedule areas.
      • Non-regularisation of traditional land rights.
  • Displacement and Forced Evictions —
      • Eviction from lands traditionally used by tribals.
      • Displacements caused by irrigation and power projects without adequate arrangements for rehabilitation.
      • Large scale land acquisition for ‘public purposes’ without appropriate compensation or rehabilitation.
  • Livelihood Related Causes —
      • Lack of food security – corruption in the Public Distribution System
      • Disruption of traditional occupations and lack of alternative work opportunities.
      • Deprivation of traditional rights in common property resources.
  • Social Exclusion —
      • Denial of dignity.
      • Continued practice, in some areas, of untouchability in various forms.
      • Poor implementation of special laws on prevention of atrocities, protection of civil rights and the abolition of bonded labour etc.
  • Governance Related Factors —
      • Corruption and inadequate provision/non-provision of essential public services including primary health care and education.
      • Misuse of powers by the police and violations of the norms of law.
      • Unsatisfactory working of local government institutions.


Steps Taken by the Government

  • Though primarily a State subject, MHA has promulgated a ‘National Policy and Action Plan’ since 2015 to address the menace of LWE. The significant features of the policy are zero tolerance towards violence coupled with a big push to developmental activities.
  • MHA is supporting the State Governments for Capacity Building and strengthening of Security Apparatus by deployment of CAPF Battalions, provision of helicopters and UAVs etc.
  • Funds are also provided for modernisation and training of State Police under —
      • Modernisation of Police Force (MPF),
      • Security Related Expenditure (SRE) Scheme and
      • Special Infrastructure Scheme (SIS).
  • For development of LWE Affected States, Government has taken several developmental initiatives which include —
      • sanction of 17,600 kms of road
      • installation of mobile tower in LWE affected districts
      • financial inclusion through opening of banks, ATMs etc.
      • imparting quality education to the youth with special focus on opening of Eklavya Model Residential Schools
        • a total of 234 EMRSs have been sanctioned for LWE affected districts, of these 119 are functional
  • Under Special Central Assistance (SCA) Scheme for further impetus to development in the most affected districts, more than 10000 projects have been taken.


Sub-categorisation of districts

  • MHA had categorised certain districts as LWE affected and covered under Security Related Expenditure (SRE) Scheme.
  • Of these SRE districts, the districts accounting for more than 85% of country-wide LWE violence are categorised as ‘Most Affected Districts’. This is done for focused deployment of resources – both security and development related.
  • To arrest the expansion and also to restrict them to bounce back in the areas recently taken away from LWE influence, 8 districts have been categorised as ‘Districts of Concern’.