The G20 Bali Declaration was finally adopted by consensus even though it failed to gloss over serious differences over Ukraine.

 

Key highlights

  • On the Russia-Ukraine —
    • The declaration acknowledged differences among members on the Russia-Ukraine war but stressed that it was essential to adhere to international law, including protection of civilians caught in conflicts.
      • Most members strongly condemned the war in Ukraine, but the declaration noted that there were other views and assessments of the situation.
    • It also said that the threat of use of nuclear weapons is inadmissible.
  • Welcomed the Turkey and UN-brokered Black Sea Grain Initiative — that secured a Russia Guarantee to allow the export of Ukrainian grain.
  • Other issues covered — The declaration covered a range of issues, from climate change to corruption, and from Covid vaccination to imparting computer skills to women.
  • The declaration recognised that G20 is not the forum to resolve security issues — However, it agreed that security issues can have significant consequences for the global economy.

 

How did India emerge as a consensus builder?

  • Declaration Strengthened India’s position on the following since the beginning of the war —
      • respect for UN charter,
      • advocating diplomacy and dialogue,
      • need for peace and stability,
      • against the use and threat of use of nuclear weapons.
  • Declaration echoed PM Modi’s remark —
      • The declaration proclaimed “todays era must not be of war”, echoing PM Modi’s remarks before President Putin on the sidelines of the SCO summit in September.
      • It strongly endorsed PM Modi’s emphasis on three key points: threat of use of nuclear weapons is inadmissible, diplomacy and dialogue and todays era must not be of war.
  • India acted as consensus builder —
      • India has emerged as a leader, solution provider and consensus builder through its positive and constructive approach in framing the G20 communique.
        • India played a key and critical role in bringing consensus amongst countries after all meetings round the year failed and there was total deadlock.
        • India worked in partnership with all developing countries and emerging markets to draft the final statement and the preamble to the statement.
      • India made sure that the countrys viewpoints are prominently reflected in the statement.
  • India also managed to get important references in the communique on —
      • sustainable development and lifestyles,
      • new quantified goals for climate finance post 2025,
      • additional finance by multilateral development banks for sustainable development goals (SDGs),
      • multilateral reforms aimed at implementing the 2030 agenda,
      • seamless and interoperable international travel.