On November 26, 1949, the Constituent Assembly adopted the Constitution of India, and it came into effect on January 26, 1950. While January 26 is celebrated as Republic Day, since 2015, November 26 has been observed as the Constitution Day of India, or Samvidhan Divas.


Why is November 26 observed as Constitution Day?

  • In May 2015, the Union Cabinet announced that November 26 will be observed as Constitution Day to promoteconstitutional values amongst citizens”. This was the year that marked the 125th birth anniversary of BR Ambedkar, the Chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Constitution. Other members included Jawaharlal Nehru, Vallabhbhai Patel and Shayama Prasad Mukherjee, among others.
  • On November 19, 2015, the government formally notified November 26 as Constitution Day. Before this, the day was observed as National Law Day. Ambedkar was also the first Law Minister of India.


Timeline of events –

  • The Constituent Assembly, the body meant to draft the Constitution of India, held its first session on December 9, 1946, attended by 207 members, including nine women. Initially, the assembly had 389 members, but after independence and the partition of India, the strength was reduced to 299. The assembly took over three years to draft the constitution, spending over 114 days considering the content of the draft alone.
  • On December 13, 1946, Nehru moved the “Objectives Resolution” that was later adopted as the Preamble on January 22, 1947.
  • The Drafting Committee chaired by Ambedkar was one among the over 17 committees of the Constituent Assembly. Their task was to prepare a Draft Constitution for India. Out of some 7,600 amendments tabled, this committee got rid of about 2,400 amendments while debating and deliberating the constitution.
  • The last session of the Constituent Assembly ended on November 26, 1949, when the Constitution was adopted, and two months later on January 26, 1950 it came into effect after 284 members signed it. January 26 was chosen since the CongressPoorna Swaraj resolution was declared on this day in the year 1930.


Interesting facts about the Constitution of India

  • The constitution is the largest written constitution in the world.
  • The original copy had been written by hand.
  • Each page of the constitution has a gold leaf frame while the opening page of each is adorned with some kind of artwork.
  • Beohar Rammanohar Sinha and Nandalal Bose, who were artists from Shantiniketan, had decorated the original version of the Constitution.
  • Prem Behari Narain Raizada was a talented calligrapher who had prepared the original copies of the constitution.