The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World, 2022 report has been released.
About the ‘State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World’ –
- It is an annual flagship report to inform on progress towards ending hunger, achieving food security and improving nutrition.
- It also provides in-depth analysis on key challenges for achieving this goal in the context of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
- The report is jointly prepared by —
- Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO),
- International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD),
- World Food Programme (WFP) and
- the World Health Organisation (WHO).
Key highlights of the report –
World is moving backwards —
- As per report, world is moving backwards in its efforts to end hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition in all its form.
- We are now only eight years away from 2030, but the distance to reach many of the SDG 2 targets is growing wider each year. SDG 2: Zero Hunger.
- It warned that the ongoing war in Ukraine is disrupting supply chains and further affecting prices of grain, fertilizer, and energy.
- At the same time, more frequent and extreme climate events are also disrupting supply chains, especially in low-income countries.
Global hunger has increased —
- The report highlighted that the number of people affected by hunger globally rose to as many as 828 million in 2021.
- This number saw an increase of about 46 million since 2020 and 150 million since the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic.
- It further said that, in 2021, around 2.3 billion people are facing moderate or severe difficulty in obtaining enough to eat.
- This was before the Ukraine war, which has sparked increases in the cost of grain, fertiliser, and energy.
Gender gap in food insecurity continued to rise —
- The gender gap in food insecurity continued to rise in 2021
- 9 percent of women in the world were moderately or severely food insecure, compared to 27.6 percent of men.
India specific observations –
- Number of undernourished people declined —
- The report said that in India, the number of undernourished people declined to 224.3 million in 2019–21 from 247.8 million in 2004-06.
- In percentage terms, the prevalence of undernourishment in India stood at 21.6 percent in 2004-06 and declined to 16.3 percent in 2019-21.
- Number of stunted children under 5 years declined —
- It said that the number of children under 5 years of age who are stunted declined to 36.1 million in 2020 from 52.3 million in 2012.
- The number of children under five years of age who are overweight declined to 2.2 million in 2020 from 3 million in 2012.
- Number of obese adults in India grew —
- The number of obese adults in India, which has a population of over 1.38 billion, grew to 34.3 million in 2016 from 25.2 million in 2012.
- Prevalence of anaemic women —
- The prevalence of anaemic women aged 15 to 49 years declined marginally from 53.2 percent in 2012 to 53 percent in 2019.
- People who were unable to afford a healthy diet —
- People who were unable to afford a healthy diet touched 973.3 million in 2020, or nearly 70.5 percent, up from 948.6 million in 2019 (69.4 percent).
- India provides substantial food subsidies to final consumers —
- The report highlighted that India provides substantial subsidies to final consumers under the Targeted Public Distribution System for grains.
- Lauded India for its effort —
- The report said that the most prominent example of a (Lower-middle-income countries) LMIC is India, where the food and agricultural policy has historically focused on protecting consumers.
- India does this by ensuring affordable food prices, through –
- export restrictions (on wheat, non-basmati rice, and milk, among others);
- marketing regulations around pricing; and
- public procurement, public food stockholding and distribution of a vast range of agricultural commodities.
- Input subsidies and expenditure on general services such as in R&D and infrastructure have been widely used in India.
- This is used as means of compensating them for the price disincentives generated by trade and market measures.
- It also helps in boosting production and self-sufficiency in the country.