Question:- India and USA are two large democracies. Examine the basic tenets on which the two political systems are based. Answer in 150 words; 10 marks
May 25, 2022

INTRODUCTION: The procedures and principles that govern any country are the product of the socio-political demands of time. While USA, the oldest democracy of the world, drafted its Constitution in 1789, India, since independence, continues to grow with the doctrine of constitutional supremacy.



LINKAGE POINT: Keeping in view the changing cultural, social and economic dynamics, both the nations have evolved the functioning of their polities with time. India has already seen over a hundred constitutional amendments so far. However, the basic tenets of the political systems of both the nation- states remain similar. They are discussed as follows:
(start writing the basic tenets)


1. Written constitution: Both US and India have a written constitution
based on which the federal political structure has been set up .



2. Bill of Rights and Fundamental Rights: The constitutions of both the nations ensure the fundamental rights of citizens like right to equality, freedom, right against exploitation, freedom of religion, cultural and
educational rights, etc.


3. Supremacy of the Federal or Union Government: Both in US and India,
states which have acceded to the Federal set up. They have no unilateral power to secede from the Central Government. The laws enacted by the Federal or Union Government will have overriding effect over the laws enacted by the states on the same subjects.



4. Separation of Powers: The executive governs the country, the legislature enacts laws and the judiciary administers justice.



5. Powers of Checks and Balances: The powers of checks and balances have been the effective mechanism both in the US and in India in safeguarding the democracy in both countries. It prevents the possibility of arbitrariness and tyranny wherein one organ exercises control over the other.



6. Rule of Law and Republicanism: Both, the countries have written constitutions ensuring rule of law and guaranteeing fundamental rights to their citizens. Both the countries are republican in nature and provide adult franchise to the citizens.



7. Independent Judiciary: Both the political systems provide for an independent judiciary to interpret the constitution and enforce the law.



CONCLUSION : The US was once more of capitalistic whereas India was once more of socialistic. India and USA are both individually unique democracies and now recognize themselves as welfare states. Both countries use affirmative  action for minorities and deprived sections of society. They continue to respond to similar objectives and expectations in a constantly changing environment.