General Studies Paper 2General Studies Paper 3 (Internal Security) (International Relations)
Question:- 97. What is INTERPOL? How does it function? What are the challenges INTERPOL needs to deal with to stay relevant in times to come? Answer in 250 words.
Oct 21, 2022


The Interpol, or International Criminal Police Organization, established in 1923, is an inter-governmental organization comprising 195 member countries, which helps police forces in all these countries to better coordinate their actions. The organization enables member countries to share and access data on crimes and criminals, and offers a range of technical and operational support.

It is neither a dispute resolution nor an investigative agency. It is designed to assist the police forces of member nations. Interpol cannot act on its own. The desired legal course of action depends on bilateral arrangements like mutual legal assistance treaties.



1. The Interpol general secretariat coordinates the organization’s activities. It is run by a secretary-general with a global complex for innovation in Singapore, and several satellite offices in different regions.

2. Interpol has a National Central Bureau (NCB) in each member country, which is the central point of contact for both the general secretariat and the other NCBs around the world. Each NCB is run by police officials of that country, and usually sits in the government ministry responsible for policing. (Home Ministry in India). The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) in India is officially designated single point of contact for liaison with the Interpol.

3. Interpol manages 19 police databases with information on crimes and criminals (from names and fingerprints to stolen passports), accessible in real- time to countries. It also offers investigative support such as forensics, analysis, and assistance in locating fugitives around the world, according to the Interpol website.

4. Interpol issues various notices which are international requests made by member countries for cooperation or alerts allowing police in member countries to share critical crime-related information.


1. There are many harmful globalized threats that the world faces. Terrorism, corruption, drug trafficking, poaching and organized crime. The pace of change of these dangers is faster than earlier.

2. Corruption and financial crimes have harmed the welfare of the citizens of many countries. The corrupt find a way to park the proceeds of crime in different parts of the world. This is one of the major sources of terror funding.

3. The areas of concern are growing and find resonance all over the world — from human trafficking to disturbing instances of financial crimes by the high and mighty, safe haven provided to fugitives accused of terrorism and money laundering and the proliferation of illicit trade based on counterfeiting and smuggling.

4. Transnational organized crime continues to thrive due to illicit networks that operate on the strength of money laundering. The complex intertwined structure of crimes funding terrorism across the globe is not yet demolished.



Interpol will turn 100 next year. Now is the time to calibrate to counter emergent challenges. Policing is not merely a process for maintaining the rule of law through deterrent punitive measures against crime and criminals. Public-spirited efficient policing is the most meaningful confidence-building measure that people across diverse geopolitical contours desire and deserve. Interpol and law enforcement agencies of member nations must endeavour to build, maintain and operate a people-centric ecosystem to meet the evolving challenges.