General Studies Paper 2 (International Relations)
Question:- 78. “The inability of Security Council to effectively address global challenges vividly demonstrates the urgent need for UN Security Council reform in order to better reflect contemporary geopolitical realities, and to enhance its effectiveness and the legitimacy and implementation of its decisions.” In the light of this statement, discuss the reform measures required to make UNSC more relevant to the current realities of the world. Answer in 250 words.
Sep 29, 2022



The attack by Russia on Ukraine is the latest example of the declining effectiveness and deteriorating legitimacy of the world peace organisation i.e the UN.


The UN has at various instances showcased its inability to address the global challenges:
• Little or no criticism of Israeli actions in palestine
• the refugee crisis all around the world like the rohingya crisis, the refugee crisis from syria, iraq, Afghanistan
• the weak global fight against terrorism: ex: china vetoing proposals to blacklist terrorists like masood azhar(JeM) and Sayyid Mir(JeT)
• world failing to meet climate change objectives
• nuclear proliferation around the world as shown by SIPRI Report

Further, the UN fails to represent the realities of today’s geopolitics:
• dominant economies and democracies like Japan, India don’t find any place on permanent membership
• it is an undemocratic organisation giving utmost power to a few nations rather than ensuring democratic decision making
• none of the nations from african nations find a place on the UNSC permanent membership

As a result of it’s flaws and lack of it’s dynamic nature, the UN is loosing its effectiveness and legitimacy.



In this regard following reforms are required:
1. Democratic decision making at UN
2. Reforms in veto power: decision making can be via the vote of majority rather than with veto power of few..
So either the veto power should be abolished or checks and balances established on use of veto power
3. The claims of G4 and L.69 countries to UNSC’s membership need to be seriously considered.



India needs to work with the like minded countries to bring about changes in the 75 year old United nation to make it more relevant to the needs and purposes of 21st century.