The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is an international treaty which was negotiated during the 1960s to reconcile three competing objectives – controlling the further spread of nuclear weapons beyond the P-5 countries (the US, the USSR, the UK, France and China) that had already tested; committing to negotiating reductions of nuclear arsenals leading to their elimination; and sharing benefits of peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology. The Treaty does not affect the right of state parties to develop, produce, and use nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. India is one of the only five countries that either did not sign the NPT or signed but withdrew.
The Tenth Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) concluded recently. The aftermath of the February Russian ‘special military operation’ in Ukraine and the threat of potential use of nuclear weapons pose a grave risk to the efficacy of the NPT. The UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres warned that the world faced “a nuclear danger not seen since the height of the Cold War”.
The weaknesses of NPT can be listed as under:
Over the past 77 years, global efforts have sought to realise the dream of nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear weapons free world and universal disarmament. In this respect, the 1968 Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) has been a significant pillar.
(After weeks of intensive but productive negotiations, the Russian Federation alone decided to block consensus on a final document at the conclusion of the Tenth Review Conference of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) in order to block language that merely acknowledged the grave radiological risk at the Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine.)
Despite Russia’s cynical obstructionism, the fact that all the other remaining States Parties were able to support the final document speaks to the Treaty’s essential role in preventing nuclear proliferation and averting the danger of nuclear war. NPT Parties affirmed the need for action on arms control, proliferation crises, and expanded access to peaceful nuclear energy, science, and technologies, especially among states of the global south. Amid a challenging international political and security environment, the extent to which NPT States Parties found common ground in support of strengthening the nuclear nonproliferation regime is remarkable. The Nuclear NPT is an essential pillar of international peace and security. Nevertheless, NPT has made the world safer and more prosperous for over fifty years.
Answer Credits: https://www.tribuneindia.com/news/comment/nuke-threat-calls-for-review-of-security-measures-428590 https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/the-npt-is-beginning-to-look-shaky/article65842423.ece